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  1. John Frederick surrendered, and passed his time in prison until his death in 1595; Grumbach was taken and executed; and the position of the elector was made quite secure. The form of Lutheranism taught in the Electorate of Saxony was that of Melanchthon , and many of its teachers and adherents, such as Caspar Peucer and Johann Stössel , afterwards called Crypto-Calvinists , were favoured by ...

  2. Under the rule of Frederick V, the Palatine sought Protestant supremacy in the Holy Roman Empire, which however ended in a debacle. After 1619, Frederick V—against the expressed advice of many counsellors—was chosen as the Bohemian king, he could not maintain the crown after he lost at the Battle of White Mountain (Bílá hora) (height 379m/1243 ft) against the troops of the Emperor and ...

  3. As reigning Prince Elector Palatine, Charles Theodore won the hearts of his subjects by founding an academy of science, stocking up the museums' collections and supporting the arts. When Maximilian III Joseph of Bavaria died in 1777, Charles Theodore became also Elector and Duke of Bavaria and moved to Munich .

  4. Nonetheless, Charles V kept his word and left Martin Luther free to leave the city. Frederick the Wise, elector of Saxony and protector of Luther, lamented the outcome of the Diet. On the road back from Worms, Luther was kidnapped by Frederick's men and hidden in a distant castle in Wartburg.

  5. His son, Elector Frederick Augustus II (1733–63), was received into the Catholic Church, while still heir-apparent, on 28 November 1712, in Bologna, Italy. With this conversion, which on account of the excitable sentiment of the Lutheran population, had to be kept secret for five years, the ruling family of Saxony once more became Catholic.

  6. On 19 October 1314 at Frankfurt-Sachsenhausen, Frederick received four out of seven votes, however two of them being contested, by Archbishop Henry II of Cologne, by Louis' brother Elector Palatine Rudolph I who did not want to support his younger brother, by the deposed Bohemian king Henry of Carinthia, and Duke Rudolph I of Saxe-Wittenberg (whose right was contested by his Lauenburg cousin ...

  7. Louis III, Elector Palatine (23 January 1378 – 30 December 1436, Heidelberg) Agnes (1379 – 1401, Heidelberg), married in Heidelberg shortly before March 1400 to Duke Adolph I of Cleves Elisabeth (27 October 1381 – 31 December 1408, Innsbruck ), married in Innsbruck 24 December 1407 to Duke Frederick IV of Austria